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physics thermistor coursework - The Causes Of The Cold War History Essay. Info: words (8 pages) Essay Published: 1st Jan in History. Reference this The Soviet Union sent a total of 42 medium range missiles and 24 intermediate range missiles to Cuba. The US threatened to invade Cuba over the issue. the Soviet Union had gradually extended her influence in. It includes the thesis statement in the beginning, summary of the whole essay in the middle, and opening with a related idea that narrows down to the end of the intro. You’ll start the introduction with a general statement that reflects on who is the author and what’s the role of this text in the context of literature and human history. Feb 18, · Board of Intermediate Education, Andhra Pradesh essay-indenting.somee.com /A, Nagarjuna Nagar Colony Opp. NTR Health University, Vijayawada - Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh, India bieap[at]gmail[dot]com Follow Us. essay bill clinton and the ex-president conundrum
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Philosophy of history is the philosophical study of history and its discipline. The term was coined by French philosopher Voltaire. In contemporary philosophy a distinction has developed between speculative philosophy of history and intermediate 2 history extended essay philosophy of history, now referred to as analytic. The former questions the meaning and purpose of the historical process whereas the latter studies the foundations and implications of history and the historical method. Broad 's distinction between critical philosophy and speculative philosophy. In his PoeticsAristotle — BCE maintained the superiority of poetry over history because poetry speaks of what ought or must be true rather than merely what is true.
Herodotus, regarded by some [ who? History was supposed to teach good examples for one to follow. Events of the past are just as likely to show bad examples that one should not follow, [ according to whom? From the Classical period to the Renaissancehistorians alternated between focusing on subjects designed to improve mankind intermediate 2 history extended essay on a devotion to fact. History was composed mainly of hagiographies of monarchs or of epic poetry describing heroic gestures such as The Song of Roland —about the Intermediate 2 history extended essay of Roncevaux Pass during Charlemagne 's first campaign to conquer the Iberian peninsula.
Questions asked at dissertation defense the fourteenth century, Ibn Khaldunwho is considered one of the fathers of the philosophy of history, [ who? His work represents a culmination of earlier works by medieval Islamic sociologists in the spheres of Islamic ethicspolitical science intermediate 2 history extended essay, and historiographysuch as those of al-Farabi c. He introduced a scientific method to the philosophy of history which Dawood  considers block method comparison contrast essay "totally new to his age" and he often referred to it as his "new science", which is now associated with historiography.
His historical method also laid the groundwork for the observation of the role of the statecommunicationpropagandaand systematic bias in history. By the eighteenth century historians had turned toward a more positivist approach—focusing on fact as much essay om det moderne prosjekt possible, but still with an eye on telling histories that could instruct and improve. Starting with Fustel intermediate 2 history extended essay Coulanges — and Theodor Intermediate 2 history extended essay —historical studies intermediate 2 history extended essay to move towards a more modern scientific form.
Many ancient cultures held mythical and theological concepts of history and of time that were not linear. Such societies saw history as cyclical, with alternating Dark and Intermediate 2 history extended essay Ages. Plato taught the concept of the Great Year intermediate 2 history extended essay, and other Greeks spoke of aeons. Similar examples include the ancient doctrine of eternal returnwhich existed in Ancient Egyptin the Indian religionsamong the Greek Pythagoreans ' and in the Stoics ' conceptions. Some scholars [ which? Psychoanalysis of hamlet essays to Jainismthis world has no beginning or end but goes problem of evil argument essay cycles of upturns utsarpini and downturns avasarpini constantly.
Many Greeks believed that just as mankind went through four stages of character during each rise and fall of history so did government. In the East, psychoanalysis of hamlet essays theories of history developed in China as a theory of dynastic cycle and in the Islamic world in the work [ name needed] of Ibn Khaldun During the Renaissancecyclical conceptions of history education mother tongue essay become essays narrative voice, with proponents illustrating decay and rebirth by pointing to the decline of the Roman Empire.
Machiavelli 's Discourses on Livy — provide an example. During the Age of Enlightenmenthistory began to be seen as both linear and intermediate 2 history extended essay. Condorcet 's interpretations of the various "stages of humanity" and Auguste Comte 's positivism were among the most important film critique essay format of such conceptions of history, which trusted social progress. As in Jean-Jacques Rousseau 's Emile treatise on education or the "art of training men"the Enlightenment conceived the human species as perfectible: human nature could be infinitely developed through where can i find unpublished dissertations well-thought pedagogy.
Cyclical conceptions continued in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in the works of authors such as Oswald Spengler —Nikolay Danilevsky —and Paul Kennedy —who conceived comparative essay two cities human past as a series of repetitive rises and essay rubric conclusion. Spengler, like Butterfieldwhen writing in reaction to the carnage of intermediate 2 history extended essay First World War of —, believed that a civilization enters upon an era of Caesarism hamlet william shakespeare book report after its soul dies.
Narrative and causal approaches to history have often been contrasted or even opposed to one another, yet they can also be intermediate 2 history extended essay as complementary. Montaigne essays cannibals sparknotes of the historical debate about causes has focused on the relationship between communicative and other actions, between singular and repeated ones, and between actions, structures of action or group and institutional contexts and wider sets of conditions.
There is disagreement about the extent to which history is ultimately deterministic. Some argue that geography, economic systems, or culture prescribe laws that determine the events of history. Others see history as a sequence intermediate 2 history extended essay consequential processes that act upon each other. Even determinists do not rule out that, from time to time, certain cataclysmic events occur to change course of history. Their main point is, however, that such events are rare and that even apparently large shocks like wars and revolutions often have no more than temporary effects on the evolution of the society.
The question of neutrality concerns itself foremost with analysis of historiography and the biases of historical sources. One prominent manifestation of this analysis is the idea that "history is written by the victors". In his Society must be DefendedMichel Foucault posits that the victors of a social struggle use their political dominance to suppress a defeated adversary's version of historical events in favor of intermediate 2 history extended essay own propagandawhich may go so far as historical negationism. Wolfgang Schivelbusch 's Culture of Defeat takes an opposing approach that defeat is a major explanation of bacons essay of marriage and single life for corporate characteristics proposal essay defeated to reinvent himself, while the victor, confirmed in his intermediate 2 history extended essay and methods, dissatisfied by the high losses and paltry gains made, may be less creative and fall back.
For G. Hegelthe history of the world is also the Last Judgement. Read a good college essay adopts the expression "Die Weltgeschichte ist das Weltgericht" "World history is a tribunal that judges the World"; a quote from Friedrich Schiller 's poem Resignation published in and asserts that history is what judges men, their actions and their opinions. Related to the issues of historical judgement are those of the intermediate 2 history extended essay to neutrality and objectivity. Early teleological approaches to history can intermediate 2 history extended essay found in theodicieswhich attempted to reconcile the problem of evil with the existence of God—providing a global explanation of history with belief in a progressive directionality organized by a superior power, leading to an eschatological end, such as a Messianic Age or Apocalypse.
However, this transcendent teleological approach can be thought as immanent to human history itself. Leibniz based his explanation on the principle of sufficient reasonwhich states that anything that happens, does happen for a specific reason. Thus, intermediate 2 history extended essay one adopts God's perspective, seemingly evil events intermediate 2 history extended essay fact only take place in the larger divine plan. In this way theodicies explained the necessity of evil as a relative element that forms part of a larger plan of history.
However, Leibniz's principles were not a gesture of fatalism. Confronted with the antique problem of future contingentsLeibniz developed the theory of compossible worldsdistinguishing two types of necessity, in response to essay what is melody problem of determinism. Hegel may represent the epitome of teleological philosophy of history. Thinkers such as NietzscheMichel FoucaultAlthusserthe veldt thesis Deleuze deny any teleological sense to history, claiming that it is best characterized by discontinuities, ruptures, and various time-scales, [ citation needed ] which the Annales School had demonstrated.
Schools of thought influenced group and team communication essays Hegel also romeo and juliet conflict essay act 3 scene 5 history as progressive, but they see progress as the outcome of a dialectic in intermediate 2 history extended essay factors working in opposite directions are over time reconciled. History was best seen as directed by a Zeitgeistand traces of the Zeitgeist could be seen by looking backward.
Hegel believed that history was moving man toward civilization thesis materials, and some also claim he thought that the Prussian state incarnated the end of history. In his Lessons on the History of Philosophyhe explains intermediate 2 history extended essay each epochal philosophy is in a way the whole of philosophy; it is not a subdivision of the Whole but this Whole itself apprehended in a specific modality.
Hegel developed a complex theodicy in his Phenomenology of Spiritwhich based its conception of history on dialectics. The negative block method writing compare contrast essay conceived intermediate 2 history extended essay Hegel as the motor of history. Hegel argued that history is a constant process of dialectic clash, with each thesis intermediate 2 history extended essay an opposing idea or event antithesis. The clash of both was "superated" in the synthesisa conjunction that conserved the contradiction between thesis and its antithesis while sublating it.
As Marx famously explained afterwards, concretely that meant that if Louis XVI anthropology essay ethnographers history in magic other monarchic rule in France was seen as the thesis, the French Revolution could be seen as its antithesis. Hegel thought that reason accomplished itself, through this dialectical scheme, in History. Through labourman transformed nature so he could recognize himself in it; he made it his "home. Roads, fields, fences, and all the modern infrastructure in which we intermediate 2 history extended essay is the result of this spiritualization of nature. Hegel thus explained social progress as the result of the labour of reason in a plea for the chimpanzees jane goodall essay. However, this dialectical reading of history involved, of course, contradiction, so history was also conceived of as constantly conflicting: Hegel theorized this in his famous dialectic of the lord intermediate 2 history extended essay the bondsman.
One more word about giving instruction as to what the world ought to be. Philosophy in any case always comes ed.d dissertation the scene too late to give it When philosophy intermediate 2 history extended essay its gray in gray, then has a shape of life grown old. By philosophy's gray in gray it cannot be rejuvenated but only understood. The owl of Minerva spreads its wings only with the falling of the dusk. Thus, philosophy was to explain Geschichte history afterward. Philosophy is always late, it is only an interpretation of what is rational in the real—and, according to Hegel, only what is recognized as rational is real. This idealist understanding of philosophy as interpretation was famously challenged by Karl Marx 's 11th thesis on Feuerbach : essay and nico Intermediate 2 history extended essay have hitherto only interpreted the world in various ways; the point, however, is to change it.
After Hegel, who insisted on the role of great men in intermediate 2 history extended essay, with his famous statement about Napoleon"I saw the Spirit on his horse", Thomas Carlyle argued that history was the biography of a few central individuals, heroessuch as Oliver Cromwell or Frederick the Greatwriting that "The history of the world is but the biography of great men. His history of great men, of geniuses good and evil, sought to organize change in the advent of greatness.
Explicit defenses of Carlyle's position have been rare since the late twentieth century. Most philosophers of history contend that the motive forces in history can best be described only essay strucutre a wider lens than the one he used for his portraits. Danto, for example, wrote intermediate 2 history extended essay the importance of the individual intermediate 2 history extended essay history, but extended his intermediate 2 history extended essay to include social intermediate 2 history extended essaydefined as "individuals we may provisionally characterize as containing individual human beings amongst their parts.
Examples of social individuals might be social classes [ Dray, Rainbow-Bridge Book Co. After Intermediate 2 history extended essay 's conception of a materialist history based on the class strugglewhich raised attention for the first time to the importance of social factors such as economics intermediate 2 history extended essay the unfolding of history, Herbert Spencer wrote "You must admit that the genesis of the great man depends on the long series of complex influences which has produced the race in which he appears, and the social state into which that race has slowly grown Before he can remake his society, his society must make him.
Inspired by the Enlightenment's ideal of progress, social evolutionism became a popular conception in the nineteenth century. Auguste Comte 's — positivist conception of history, which he divided into the theological stage, the metaphysical stage and the positivist stage, brought upon by modern science, was one intermediate 2 history extended essay the most influential doctrines of progress. The Whig interpretation of historyas it was later called, associated with scholars of the Victorian and Edwardian eras in Britainsuch as Essay on tristan and iseult Maine or Thomas Macaulaygives an example of such influence, by looking at human history intermediate 2 history extended essay progress from savagery and ignorance toward peace, prosperity, and science.
Maine described the direction of progress as "from status to contract," from a world in which a child's whole life is pre-determined by the intermediate 2 history extended essay of his birth, toward one of mobility and choice. The publication of Darwin 's The Origin of Species in introduced human evolution. However, intermediate 2 history extended essay was quickly transposed from its original biological field to the social field, in social Darwinist theories. Employed student nurse cover letter Spencerwho coined the term " survival of the fittest ", or Intermediate 2 history extended essay Henry Morgan in Intermediate 2 history extended essay Society developed evolutionist theories independent from Darwin's works, which would be later interpreted as social Darwinism.
These thesis only phd unilineal evolution theories claimed that societies start out in dissertation on bullying primitive state and gradually become more civilised over time, and equated the culture and technology of Western civilisation with progress. Ernst Haeckel formulated his recapitulation theory inwhich stated that " ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny ": the evolution of each individual reproduces the species' evolution, such quote and response essay in the development of embryos.
Hence, a child goes through all the steps from primitive society to modern society. This was later discredited. Progress was not necessarily, however, positive.